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Language notes Unit 1 Social networks Lesson A Speed-friending Grammar extra Questions Vocabulary notebook The right choice! (See Student's Book p. ). Viewpoint Level 1 Teacher's Edition with Assessment CD-ROM, features page-by -page teaching notes, with step-by-step lesson plans, audio. Veja grátis o arquivo Viewpoint Teacher Book Level 1 Sample Unit enviado para a disciplina de Inglês Categoria: Aula -

Searle also introduces a technical term the Background, [25] which, according to him, has been the source of much philosophical discussion "though I have been arguing for this thesis for almost twenty years," Searle writes, [26] "many people whose opinions I respect still disagree with me about it".

He calls Background the set of abilities, capacities, tendencies, and dispositions that humans have that are not themselves intentional states but that generate appropriate such states on demand.


Thus, when someone asks us to "cut the cake" we know to use a knife and when someone asks us to "cut the grass" we know to use a lawnmower and not vice versa , even though the request did not mention this. Beginning with the possibility of reversing these two, an endless series of sceptical, anti-real or science-fiction interpretations could be imagined.

To give an example, two chess players might be engaged in a bitter struggle at the board, but they share all sorts of Background presuppositions: that they will take turns to move, that no one else will intervene, that they are both playing to the same rules, that the fire alarm won't go off, that the board won't suddenly disintegrate, that their opponent won't magically turn into a grapefruit, and so on indefinitely.

As most of these possibilities won't have occurred to either player, Searle thinks the Background is itself unconscious as well as nonintentional [29]. To have a Background is to have a set of brain structures that generate appropriate intentional states if the fire alarm does go off, say. In his debate with Derrida, Searle argued against Derrida's view that a statement can be disjoined from the original intentionality of its author, for example when no longer connected to the original author, while still being able to produce meaning.

Searle maintained that even if one was to see a written statement with no knowledge of authorship it would still be impossible to escape the question of intentionality, because "a meaningful sentence is just a standing possibility of the intentional speech act".

For Searle ascribing intentionality to a statement was a basic requirement for attributing it any meaning at all. He argues that, starting with behaviorism an early but influential scientific view, succeeded by many later accounts that Searle also dismisses , much of modern philosophy has tried to deny the existence of consciousness, with little success.

In Intentionality, he parodies several alternative theories of consciousness by replacing their accounts of intentionality with comparable accounts of the hand: No one would think of saying, for example, "Having a hand is just being disposed to certain sorts of behavior such as grasping" manual behaviorism , or "Hands can be defined entirely in terms of their causes and effects" manual functionalism , or "For a system to have a hand is just for it to be in a certain computer state with the right sorts of inputs and outputs" manual Turing machine functionalism , or "Saying that a system has hands is just adopting a certain stance toward it" the manual stance.

Searle says simply that both are true: consciousness is a real subjective experience, caused by the physical processes of the brain. A view which he suggests might be called biological naturalism. Ontological subjectivity[ edit ] Searle has argued [36] that critics like Daniel Dennett , who he claims insist that discussing subjectivity is unscientific because science presupposes objectivity, are making a category error. Perhaps the goal of science is to establish and validate statements which are epistemically objective, i.

Searle calls any value judgment epistemically subjective. Thus, " McKinley is prettier than Everest " is "epistemically subjective", whereas "McKinley is higher than Everest" is "epistemically objective. No such criteria exist for prettiness. Beyond this distinction, Searle thinks there are certain phenomena including all conscious experiences that are ontologically subjective, i.

For example, although it might be subjective or objective in the epistemic sense, a doctor's note that a patient suffers from back pain is an ontologically objective claim: it counts as a medical diagnosis only because the existence of back pain is "an objective fact of medical science".

Searle goes on to affirm that "where consciousness is concerned, the existence of the appearance is the reality". See also: Chinese room and philosophy of artificial intelligence A consequence of biological naturalism is that if we want to create a conscious being, we will have to duplicate whatever physical processes the brain goes through to cause consciousness.

Searle thereby means to contradict what he calls " Strong AI ", defined by the assumption that as soon as a certain kind of software is running on a computer, a conscious being is thereby created.

Someone slides you some Chinese characters through the first slit, you follow the instructions in the book, transcribing characters as instructed onto the scratch paper, and slide the resulting sheet out the second slit. To people on the outside world, it appears the room speaks Chinese—they slide Chinese statements in one slit and get valid responses in return—yet you do not understand a word of Chinese.

This suggests, according to Searle, that no computer can ever understand Chinese or English, because, as the thought experiment suggests, being able to 'translate' Chinese into English does not entail 'understanding' either Chinese or English: all which the person in the thought experiment, and hence a computer, is able to do is to execute certain syntactic manipulations. It follows that anything that carries out the same informational processes as a human is also conscious. Upcoming SlideShare.

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For help with questions, see page Ss count the contrasting expressions. See also: Chinese room and philosophy of artificial intelligence A consequence of biological naturalism is that if we want to create a conscious being, we will have to duplicate whatever physical processes the brain goes through to cause consciousness.

Corpus information Contrast words in writing and conversation The graph below shows the relative frequency of the expressions however, whereas, on the one hand, and on the other hand in writing and in informal conversation. Stan Yeah. Thus, when someone asks us to "cut the cake" we know to use a knife and when someone asks us to "cut the grass" we know to use a lawnmower and not vice versa , even though the request did not mention this.

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Have Ss give definitions or explanations of words they know. You can test yourself by writing your guess online debate, an individual goes to a debate website and beside the sentences before we listen.