NSW Department of Education and Training (DET) All rights reserved. This work is copyrighted, but permission is given to trainers and teachers to make. How engine works. TD. Note: 1ère. Page 1 sur 6. Smaïl GOUMEZIANE – Lycée Georges CORMIER. Worksheet. 1. How a car engine Works. The process by. How Car Engines garfstontanguicon.tk - Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online.
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arrangement of various parts of IC engines. • Discus the new Four Stroke Petrol Engine Operation. M.S Ramaiah . in engines used in cars and. M.S Ramaiah. ENGINE & WORKING PRINCIPLES. A heat engine is a machine, which converts heat energy into mechanical energy. The combustion of fuel such as coal. Principles of SI and CI engine operation, 2-stroke engines,. 4-stroke engines ignition engine. Daimler/Maybach () Incorporated IC engine in automobile.
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Yap Gee Shiuan. Salman Zafar. Sandro Ruiz. What changed things? The invention of the car. Wheels may be years old, but the cars we drive round in today made their debut only in That was when German engineer Karl Benz — fastened a small gasoline petrol engine to a three-wheeled cart and made the first primitive, gas-powered car. Although Benz developed the automobile, another German engineer, Nikolaus Otto — , was arguably even more important—for he was the man who'd invented the gasoline engine in the first place, about two decades earlier.
It's a testament to Otto's genius that virtually every car engine made ever since has been inspired by his "four-stroke" design.
Let's take a look at how it works! Photo: Car engines turn energy locked in liquid fuel into heat and kinetic energy. They're full of pipes and cylinders because they work like mini chemical plants.
What is a car? Photo: The restored and nicely polished! That's not quite such an obvious question as it seems. A car is a metal box with wheels at the corners that gets you from A to B, yes, but it's more than that.
In scientific terms, a car is an energy converter: a machine that releases the energy locked in a fuel like gasoline petrol or diesel and turns it into mechanical energy in moving wheels and gears.
When the wheels power the car, the mechanical energy becomes kinetic energy: the energy that the car and its occupants have as they go along. The challenge of building a car engine is to get as much energy out of each drop of fuel as possible—to make the car go as far and as fast as it can.
How do we get power from petroleum? Cars, trucks, trains, ships, and planes—all these things are powered by fuels made from petroleum. Also known as "crude oil", petroleum is the thick, black, energy-rich liquid buried deep underground that became the world's most important source of energy during the 20th century. After being pumped to the surface, petroleum is shipped or piped to a refinery and separated into gasoline, kerosene, and diesel fuels, and a whole host of other petrochemicals—used to make everything from paints to plastics.
Photo: Petroleum can be extracted from the ground by "nodding donkey" pumps like this one. Picture courtesy of US Department of Energy. Petroleum fuels are made from hydrocarbons: the molecules inside consist mostly of carbon and hydrogen atoms with a fewer other elements, such as oxygen, attached for good measure.
Internal combustion engine
Wood , paper , and coal also contain hydrocarbons. We can turn hydrocarbons into useful energy simply by burning them.
When you burn hydrocarbons in air, their molecules split apart. The carbon and hydrogen combine with oxygen from the air to make carbon dioxide gas and water, while the energy that held the molecules together is released as heat. This process, which is called combustion, releases huge amounts of energy.
When you sit round a camp fire, warming yourself near the flames, you're really soaking up energy produced by billions of molecules cracking open and splitting apart!
Photo: Why does the world use so much oil? There are now about a billion petroleum-powered cars on the planet and, as this chart shows, even the most energy-efficient models burn through at least 10 barrels gallons of petroleum in a year. The crankcase and the part of the cylinder below the exhaust port is used as a pump. The carburetor then feeds the fuel mixture into the crankcase through a reed valve or a rotary disk valve driven by the engine. There are cast in ducts from the crankcase to the port in the cylinder to provide for intake and another from the exhaust port to the exhaust pipe.
The height of the port in relationship to the length of the cylinder is called the "port timing". On the first upstroke of the engine there would be no fuel inducted into the cylinder as the crankcase was empty.
On the downstroke, the piston now compresses the fuel mix, which has lubricated the piston in the cylinder and the bearings due to the fuel mix having oil added to it.
As the piston moves downward is first uncovers the exhaust, but on the first stroke there is no burnt fuel to exhaust. As the piston moves downward further, it uncovers the intake port which has a duct that runs to the crankcase.
How Car Engines Work.pdf
Since the fuel mix in the crankcase is under pressure, the mix moves through the duct and into the cylinder. Because there is no obstruction in the cylinder of the fuel to move directly out of the exhaust port prior to the piston rising far enough to close the port, early engines used a high domed piston to slow down the flow of fuel.
Later the fuel was "resonated" back into the cylinder using an expansion chamber design. When the piston rose close to TDC, a spark ignites the fuel.
As the piston is driven downward with power, it first uncovers the exhaust port where the burned fuel is expelled under high pressure and then the intake port where the process has been completed and will keep repeating.
Later engines used a type of porting devised by the Deutz company to improve performance.
It was called the Schnurle Reverse Flow system. DKW licensed this design for all their motorcycles. Before the invention of reliable electrical methods, hot tube and flame methods were used. Experimental engines with laser ignition have been built. When Bosch developed the magneto it became the primary system for producing electricity to energize a spark plug.
Small engines are started by hand cranking using a recoil starter or hand crank. Prior to Charles F. Kettering of Delco's development of the automotive starter all gasoline engined automobiles used a hand crank. The battery's charged state is maintained by an automotive alternator or previously a generator which uses engine power to create electrical energy storage. The battery supplies electrical power for starting when the engine has a starting motor system, and supplies electrical power when the engine is off.
The battery also supplies electrical power during rare run conditions where the alternator cannot maintain more than As alternator voltage falls below During virtually all running conditions, including normal idle conditions, the alternator supplies primary electrical power.
Some systems disable alternator field rotor power during wide open throttle conditions. Disabling the field reduces alternator pulley mechanical loading to nearly zero, maximizing crankshaft power. In this case, the battery supplies all primary electrical power. Gasoline engines take in a mixture of air and gasoline and compress it by the movement of the piston from bottom dead center to top dead center when the fuel is at maximum compression. The reduction in the size of the swept area of the cylinder and taking into account the volume of the combustion chamber is described by a ratio.
Early engines had compression ratios of 6 to 1. As compression ratios were increased, the efficiency of the engine increased as well.
With early induction and ignition systems the compression ratios had to be kept low. With advances in fuel technology and combustion management, high performance engines can run reliably at ratio.
With low octane fuel, a problem would occur as the compression ratio increased as the fuel was igniting due to the rise in temperature that resulted.
Charles Kettering developed a lead additive which allowed higher compression ratios, which was progressively abandoned for automotive use from the s onward, partly due to lead poisoning concerns. The fuel mixture is ignited at difference progressions of the piston in the cylinder. At low rpm, the spark is timed to occur close to the piston achieving top dead center.
In order to produce more power, as rpm rises the spark is advanced sooner during piston movement. The spark occurs while the fuel is still being compressed progressively more as rpm rises.
The induction coil is a fly-back system, using interruption of electrical primary system current through some type of synchronized interrupter.What are the main parts of a car engine? However, many thousands of 2-stroke lawn maintenance engines are in use.
I was one of the consultants and contributors to this very colorful, lavishly illustrated book. The sump surrounds the crankshaft. A smaller bore and a longer stroke, in what's called an undersquare long-stroke engine, gives us more power at lower revs, which is great for a slow-moving, heavy truck or a heavier motorbike.
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